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  • Parker Model of the Solar Wind

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    In 1957 Chapman developed a hydrostatic model describing the Sun's atmosphere (see ). In 1958 Parker showed that the pressure resulting from Chapman's model was too low compared to the total pressure given by the galactic magnetic field, the interstellar gas, and the cosmic radiation. Additionally, this model can not explain the observation of the Ludwig Biermann, who studied the fact that the ...
    Tags: atmospherecoronasun
    Added by Martin on 2011-07-12 15:43


    Parker Model of the Solar Wind In 1957 Chapman developed a hydrostatic model describing the Sun's atmosphere (see ). In 1958 Parker showed that the pressure resulting from Chapman's model was too low compared to the total pressure given by the galactic magnetic field, the interstellar gas, and the cosmic radiation. Additionally, this model can not explain the observation of the Ludwig Biermann, who studied the fact that the tail of a comet always points away from the sun whether it is headed towards or away from the sun. Furthermore, Biermann found a correlation between the drift of the comet's tails and fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field. Hence, Parker skipped Chapman's assumption of a hydrostatic solar atmosphere. His dynamic model of the Sun's atmosphere describes the continuous ejection of plasma from the Sun's surface into and through interplanetary space. Due to Parkers proposal this particle flow is called solar wind.
  • Chapman Model of the Sun's Atmosphere

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    In 1957 Chapman developed one of the first models describing the Sun's atmosphere (see ). Hereby, the Sun's atmosphere is defined as the parts of the Sun above the photosphere where the light originates. The Sun's atmosphere can be divided into the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere. The chromosphere can be seen only at a solar eclipse where the chromospher...
    Tags: atmospherecoronasun
    Added by Martin on 2011-07-12 11:44


    Chapman Model of the Sun's Atmosphere In 1957 Chapman developed one of the first models describing the Sun's atmosphere (see ). Hereby, the Sun's atmosphere is defined as the parts of the Sun above the photosphere where the light originates. The Sun's atmosphere can be divided into the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere. The chromosphere can be seen only at a solar eclipse where the chromosphere is briefly visible as a flash of red color just as the visible edge of the photosphere disappears behind the Moon. The transition region describes the region between the chromosphere and the corona where the influence of forces due to gravitation and pressure goes back and the magnetofluiddynamical effects start to dominate. The next zone of the Sun's atmosphere, the corona, can also be observed at solar eclipses by naked eye. The corona decreases continuously, hence, a strict border of the corona cannot be defined and it passes into the solar wind of the heliosphere.